4.6 Concurrent Engineering (CE) 

According to Winner et al. (1988), concurrent engineering is
"...a systematic approach to the integrated concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacturing and support. This approach is intended to cause the developers, from the outset, to consider all elements of the product life cycle from conception through disposal, including quality, cost, schedule, and user requirements."
A central idea in CE is to be able to run more activities in parallel with the aid of information technology and organizational restructuring. In addition, a life-cycle perspective on products is encouraged in order to reduce the overall costs. Main benefits of a successful implementation of CE are reduced time-to-market, improved product quality and increased productivity, leading to lower costs (Carter and Baker, 1992:66).

The relevance of CE to enterprise modeling is that models may be developed as a means to find process bottlenecks and possibilities for running activities in parallel. The use of "as-is" and "to-be" models is as for BPR.

The main purposes of enterprise modeling in CE is understanding (of both current and future processes, according to Singh and Lewis, 1995) and simulation, when appropriate (Ranky, 1994:15).

Concurrent engineering as a principle can be applied to any type of work. Singh (1993:14) reports a reduction of the design process of an air foil development project from 18 months to 7 months through successful use of deployment flow charting (simple flow diagrams with activities, products, roles and time) to develop shared understanding of costly iterations and bottlenecks (exemplifying modeling of DI type of work).