9.3 Some Dependencies Between Techniques
A summary of the techniques is provided in in terms of appropriate input
and outcome. In addition, a column indicating the role of the technique
as a part of Tema is introduced, indicating whether the technique
supports sense-making (S), representation (R), or manifestation (M) of
Table 9.1: Summary of proposed elements in the Tema pool
||Term description (concepts)
||Categories with concepts
||Dependencies between concepts
||Dependencies and priorities
|Deployment Flow Charting
||Flow chart with roles, activities, products,
||Textual description of model
||Domain decomposed in objective, product, process
||Improved understanding of theme
Recall that the pool of techniques is a part of the development phase
of Tema. Hence, all techniques concern activities concerned with
development of models, and the question of model distribution is
not discussed. Another observation from is that the techniques mostly support
the sense-making part of enterprise modeling and less representation or
manifestation. This is consistent with the intention of Tema.
When to use each technique must be decided from the qualities of the
technique and the perceived needs in a problem situation. Consequently,
strict rules for usage of the techniques are not given, although a few
guidelines are summarized in figure 9.9.
There are two symbols used in :
An arrow, indicating that the output of one technique may become
the input of another technique (to be read may be followed by).
A circle, indicating that a technique can be applied as a part of
a technique or with another technique as input (to be read may be applied
Figure 9.9: Tentative assessment of combination of techniques
|From , the output from brainstorming can be input to term characterization.
An OPPO assessment can be applied to all the techniques by describing the
objective, product, process and organization of the technique.
The assessments made in are intended as indications of some possible
combinations of techniques, and are explicitly not meant as authoritative
rules. Some prominent observations include:
Otherwise, the techniques may be used freely depending on the competence
and preferences of the modelers.
Brainstorming can be used in any situation where there is a need
to come up with a number of concepts. Hence, it can precede any of the
Term characterization can be used in concert with most techniques
to work towards agreement on the meaning of a term, but is probably most
important in concept clustering (to categorize), Deployment Flow Charting
(to describe the modeling language) and model explanation (to elaborate
on the meaning of model contents).
In a QFD analysis, personal experience indicates that getting the
concepts on the same level can be difficult. A dependency analysis in advance
may reduce the problem.
OPPO assessments can be applied to all techniques, in the sense
that all techniques may be described and discussed according to the objectives
of using them, the product, the process and the required organization.
Construction of narratives can be used to describe the application
of techniques by telling stories of successful or failed experiences with
the various techniques.
Group reflection may proceed all techniques as a means to improve
the way the technique is applied. Actors may also reflect upon the use
of various techniques.