Norway is rich on renewable energy sources and has a long history of deployment of these. However, the EU renewable energy and emission targets have introduced large challenges for the development and operation of the whole European electricity supply system. These ambitious targets have initiated many research programs to make it possible to achieve these goals. The Smart Grid is considered to be one of the important tools to make a seamless integration of all kind of energy sources, to facilitate the end-user participation and to utilize the transmission and distribution infrastructure.

Smart Grid building blocks

In the Department of Computer and Information Science (IDI) at NTNU, currently there are several projects on Smart Grid running by PhD and Postdoc researchers:

Improved Management of Software Evolution for Smart Grid applications

Smart Grid offers more flexible elpower services for the end-users and more optimized elpower generation, transmission and delivery for the elpower industry. Examples are automatic metering or smoothing out daily load peaks. Such “smartness” assumes many software-driven services and equipment (artefacts), and with challenging value chains with many partners and with use of international standards. The actual software is developed and run by a large number of companies in many countries. Such software is in a never-ending state of flux because of changing expectations from the direct and indirect users of software-driven artifacts. When, how and by whom should then a piece of software be evolved, e.g. with use of Open Source Software of undocumented quality?
This project emphasizes applications related to electrical power grids, being a critical area in all industrial societies. It will propose and validate methods for how to best develop and evolve the related software systems. It assumes a tight coupling between the academic and industrial actors over three major iterations. Tosin Daniel Oyetoyan and Mohsen Anvaari are working on this project under supervision of Prof. Reidar Conradi (contact).

Energy Efficient Parallelization of Smart Grid Computations on Novel Multicore Processors

Today's ICT world has an increased focus on energy-efficient computing, that is sometimes called Green Computing. Novel multicore processors and their associated software give many new opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of computations. The cubic relation between processor frequency, supply voltage and power motivates the use of parallelism on more but slower processor cores to save energy. There is a large research activity developing different new multicore processors, both homogenous and heterogeneous. On the software side there are new programming models, languages and tools for parallel implementations. The increased focus on energy efficiency also gives a need for research and innovation at the operating system level.
The purpose of this project is to contribute to the state-of-the-art within this research field and with test cases and applications from the SmartGrid area. The project will study existing methods, techniques and tools for optimizing the energy efficiency of multicore computations and also explore new ones. Modern approaches such as design space exploration, system level simulations, autotuning and use of performance & energy counters are relevant. Abdullah Al Hasib is working on this project under supervision of Prof. Lasse Natvig (contact).

Next Generation Control Centers for Smart Grid

The project is based on the general expectation that the deployment of Smart Meters and new sensors will drastically increase the data volume to be managed by Distribution and Transmission System Operators.The project’s main goal is to see how the increasing amount of real time and static data can be utilized most efficiently in order to operate the power system in a safer, more reliable and cost effective way. IDI is responsible for WP 4 which will provide decision support to the control room. Operators in the control room monitor a large amount of data today and the amount of data will most possibly increase in a future smart grid.  Overload of data and information will create a problem that needs to be addressed.  WP 4 aims to develop a smart system that analyses the real time data stream, detects the indications of anomalous events, and suggest preventive or repair actions.  Since many of such events/situations may be re-occurring, the network should remember past similar situations (and how they were solved) to use them in handling new problems. Hence, decision-making mechanisms that use experience-based reasoning will constitute a main focus in this WP. Two subtasks involved in this work are  (i) data abstraction and (ii) experience-based decision methods where the outputs of the former are a set of indicators that can be used  as input to the latter subtask.
IDI's WP has started in September and we are currently trying, together with our industry partners, to define use scenarious. Some candidates are fault diagnosis and prediction, and predictive maintenance, possibly in the distribution net. Axel Tidemann and
Boye Annfelt Hoverstad are working on this project under supervision of Prof. Helge Langseth and Assoc. Prof. Pinar Ozturk (contact).

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